Slowly Changing Dimension (SCD) in Power BI, Part 1, Introduction to SCD

Slowly changing dimension (SCD) is a data warehousing concept coined by the amazing Ralph Kimball. The SCD concept deals with moving a specific set of data from one state to another. Imagine we have a human resources (HR) system; Stephen Jiang is a Sales Manager, managing 10 sales representatives in his team. The following screenshot shows the sample data:

SCD in Power BI, Stephen Jiang is the sales manager of a team of 10 sales representatives
Image 1: Stephen Jiang is the sales manager of a team of 10 sales representatives

Today, Stephen Jiang got his promotion to the Vice President of Sales role, so his team has grown in size from 10 to 17. Stephen is the same person, but his role is now changed, as shown in the following image:

SCD in Power BI, Stephen's team after he was promoted to Vice President of Sales
Image 2: Stephen’s team after he was promoted to Vice President of Sales

Another example is when a customer’s address changes in a sales system. Again, the customer is the same, but their address is now different. From a data warehousing standpoint, we have different options to deal with the data depending on the business requirements, leading us to different types of SDCs. It is crucial to note that the data changes in the transactional source systems (in our examples, the HR system or a sales system). We move and transform the data from the transactional systems via extract, transform, and load (ETL) processes and land it in a data warehouse, where the SCD concept kicks in. SCD is about how changes in the source systems reflect the data in the data warehouse. These kinds of changes in the source system do not happen very often hence the term slowly changing. Many SCD types have been developed over the years, which is out of the scope of this post, but for your reference, we cover the first three types as follows.

SCD type zero (SCD 0)

With this type of SCD, we ignore all changes in a dimension. So, when a person’s residential address changes in the source system (an HR system, in our example), we do not change the landing dimension in our data warehouse. In other words, we ignore the changes within the data source. SCD 0 is also referred to as fixed dimensions.

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