Content Endorsement in Power BI, Part 1, The Basics

Content Endorsement in Power BI, Part 1, The Basics

As you may already know, Power BI is not a report-authoring tool only. Indeed, it is much more than that. Power BI is an all-around data platform supporting many aspects you’d expect from such a platform. You can ingest the data from various data sources, transform it, model it, visualise and share it with others. Read more about what Power BI is here.

One of the key aspects of users’ experience in Power BI is their ability to collaborate in creating and sharing content, making it an easy-to-use and convenient platform. But the convenience comes with a cost of having a lot of shared content in large organisations raising concerns about the content’s quality and trustworthiness. It would be hard, if not impossible, to identify the quality of the contents without a mechanism to identify the quality of the contents. Content endorsement is the answer to this.

In this series of blog posts, I answer the following questions:

  • What is Content Endorsement?
  • What contents support endorsement?
  • Who can endorse the content?
  • What is Certification?
  • How to endorse the supported content?
  • What are endorsement processes?

But before we start, we need to know what content means in Power BI.

What does Content Mean in Power BI?

When we use the term Content in the context of Power BI, we refer to the objects we create in Power BI Service. We currently have the following contents in Power BI:

You may ask, is a Workspace also content?

The answer is no; a Workspace is a container for the contents enabling users to collaborate within the organisation.

Continue reading “Content Endorsement in Power BI, Part 1, The Basics”

Dynamically Passing Parameters to a SQL Stored Procedure in Excel 365 Using Power Query

In September 2014, I wrote a blog post on dynamically passing parameters from PowerPivot to a SQL Server stored procedure using VBA. Back then, VBA was a real lifesaver. It perhaps still is for many of us. But frankly, I even forgot how to write VBA. Maybe it is time to look at it again. I also wrote a quick tip in August 2020 about doing a similar thing in Power BI using Query Parameters. Check it out if you’re keen to know how it works in Power BI.

Eight years later, one of my weblog readers asked how to do the same thing in later versions of Excel; he is specifically asking for Excel 2019. I thought it would be good to cover this topic after 8 years and see how it works now. So, here it is, a new blog post.

The Problem

From time to time, Excel users require to get the data from a SQL Server stored procedure. The stored procedures usually accept some input parameters and return the results. But how can we dynamically pass values to the stored procedures from cells in Excel to SQL Server?

Prerequisites

For this blog post, I use SQL Server 2019 and Microsoft’s famous sample database, AdventureWorks2019. You can find Microsoft’s other sample databases here. I also use Excel 365, it should work the same way in Excel 2019, though.

The Solution

I discuss two approaches to overcome the challenge. Both approaches use Power Query slightly differently. In both approaches, we parameterise the SQL Statement of the SQL Server connector, passing the values to the parameters from an Excel table. One approach requires ignoring the Privacy Levels in Power Query, while the other does not. Both approaches work, but, depending on your preferences, you may prefer one over the other.

As mentioned, I use the AdventureWorks2019 sample database that contains a couple of stored procedures. I use the dbo.uspGetBillOfMaterials stored procedure accepting two parameters, @StartProductID and @CheckDate.

Approach 1: Parameterising the SQL connector’s SQL Statements, Ignoring Privacy Levels

Follow these steps to pass the parameters’ values from an Excel sheet to the stored procedure and get the results in Excel:

  1. In Excel, navigate to the Data tab
  2. Click the Get Data dropdown
  3. Hover over the From Database option and click the From SQL Server Database
  4. Enter the Server
  5. Enter the Database
  6. Expand the Advanced options
  7. Type EXEC [dbo].[uspGetBillOfMaterials] @StartProductID = 727, @CheckDate = N'2013-01-01' in the SQL statement textbox
  8. Click OK
Using SQL Statement in Power Query for Excel
Using SQL Statement in Power Query for Excel
  1. Click the dropdown on the Load button
  2. Click Load to
Load to Options to Load the Results of Power Query query into an Excel Sheet or PowerPivot Model

From here, we have some options to load the results either into an Excel sheet or the PowerPivot data model. We want to load the data into the PowerPivot data model in this example.

  1. Select Only Create Connection
  2. Check the Add this data to the Data Model option
  3. Click OK
Loading the Power Query Data into PowerPivot in Excel
Loading the Power Query Data into PowerPivot in Excel
Continue reading “Dynamically Passing Parameters to a SQL Stored Procedure in Excel 365 Using Power Query”

Slowly Changing Dimension (SCD) in Power BI, Part 2, Implementing SCD 1

Slowly Changing Dimension (SCD) in Power BI, Part 2, Implementing SCD 1

I explained what SCD means in a Business Intelligence solution in my previous post. We also discussed that while we do not expect to handle SCD2 in a Power BI implementation, we can handle scenarios similar to SCD1. In this post, I explain how to do so.

Scenario

We have a retail company selling products. The company releases the list of products in Excel format, including list price and dealer price, every year. The product list is released on the first day of July when the financial year starts. We have to implement a Power BI solution that keeps the latest product data to analyse the sales transactions. The following image shows the Product list for 2013:

Products List 2013 in Excel
Products List 2013

So each year, we receive a similar Excel file to the above image. The files are stored on a SharePoint Online site.

Scenario Explained

As the previous post explains, an SCD1 always keeps the current data by updating the old data with the new data. So an ETL process reads the data from the source, identifies the existing data in the destination table, inserts the new rows to the destination, updates the existing rows, and deletes the removed rows.

Here is why our scenario is similar to SCD1, with one exception:

  • We do not actually update the data in the Excel files and do not create an ETL process to read the data from the Excel files, identify the changes and apply the changes to an intermediary Excel file
  • We must read the data from the source Excel files, keep the latest data while filtering out the old ones and load the data into the data model.

As you see, while we are taking a very different implementation approach, the results are very similar with an exception: we do not delete any rows.

Implementation

Here is what we should do to achieve the goal:

  • We get the data in Power Query Editor using the SharePoint Folder connector
  • We combite the files
  • We use the ProductNumber column to identify the duplicated products
  • We use the Reporting Date column to identify the latest dates
  • We only keep the latest rows

Getting Data from SharePoint Online Folder

As we get the data from multiple files stored on SharePoint Online, we have to use the SharePoint Folder connector. Follow these steps:

  1. Login to SharePoint Online and navigate to the site holding the Product list Excel files and copy the site URL from the browser
Getting SharePoint Online Site URL
Getting SharePoint Online Site URL
  1. From the Get Data in the Power BI Desktop, select the SharePoint Folder connector
  2. Click Connect
Connecting to SharePoint Online Folder from Power BI
Connecting to SharePoint Online Folder from Power BI
  1. Paste the Site URL copied on step 1
  2. Click OK
Connecting to SharePoint Online Folder from Power BI using the SharePoint Folder connector
Connecting to SharePoint Online Folder from Power BI using the SharePoint Folder connector
  1. Click Transform Data
Transforming data in Power Query Editor
Transforming data in Power Query Editor
Continue reading “Slowly Changing Dimension (SCD) in Power BI, Part 2, Implementing SCD 1”

Business Intelligence Components and How They Relate to Power BI

Business Intelligence Components and How They Relate to Power BI

When I decided to write this blog post, I thought it would be a good idea to learn a bit about the history of Business Intelligence. I searched on the internet, and I found this page on Wikipedia. The term Business Intelligence as we know it today was coined by an IBM computer science researcher, Hans Peter Luhn, in 1958, who wrote a paper in the IBM Systems journal titled A Business Intelligence System as a specific process in data science. In the Objectives and principles section of his paper, Luhn defines the business as “a collection of activities carried on for whatever purpose, be it science, technology, commerce, industry, law, government, defense, et cetera.” and an intelligence system as “the communication facility serving the conduct of a business (in the broad sense)”. Then he refers to Webster’s dictionary’s definition of the word Intelligence as the ability to apprehend the interrelationships of presented facts in such a way as to guide action towards a desired goal”.

It is fascinating to see how a fantastic idea in the past sets a concrete future that can help us have a better life. Isn’t it precisely what we do in our daily BI processes as Luhn described of a Business Intelligence System for the first time? How cool is that?

When we talk about the term BI today, we refer to a specific and scientific set of processes of transforming the raw data into valuable and understandable information for various business sectors (such as sales, inventory, law, etc…). These processes will help businesses to make data-driven decisions based on the existing hidden facts in the data.

Like everything else, the BI processes improved a lot during its life. I will try to make some sensible links between today’s BI Components and Power BI in this post.

Generic Components of Business Intelligence Solutions

Generally speaking, a BI solution contains various components and tools that may vary in different solutions depending on the business requirements, data culture and the organisation’s maturity in analytics. But the processes are very similar to the following:

  • We usually have multiple source systems with different technologies containing the raw data, such as SQL Server, Excel, JSON, Parquet files etc…
  • We integrate the raw data into a central repository to reduce the risk of making any interruptions to the source systems by constantly connecting to them. We usually load the data from the data sources into the central repository.
  • We transform the data to optimise it for reporting and analytical purposes, and we load it into another storage. We aim to keep the historical data in this storage.
  • We pre-aggregate the data into certain levels based on the business requirements and load the data into another storage. We usually do not keep the whole historical data in this storage; instead, we only keep the data required to be analysed or reported.
  • We create reports and dashboards to turn the data into useful information

With the above processes in mind, a BI solution consists of the following components:

  • Data Sources
  • Staging
  • Data Warehouse/Data Mart(s)
  • Extract, Transform and Load (ETL)
  • Semantic Layer
  • Data Visualisation

Data Sources

One of the main goals of running a BI project is to enable organisations to make data-driven decisions. An organisation might have multiple departments using various tools to collect the relevant data every day, such as sales, inventory, marketing, finance, health and safety etc.

The data generated by the business tools are stored somewhere using different technologies. A sales system might store the data in an Oracle database, while the finance system stores the data in a SQL Server database in the cloud. The finance team also generate some data stored in Excel files.

The data generated by different systems are the source for a BI solution.

Staging

We usually have multiple data sources contributing to the data analysis in real-world scenarios. To be able to analyse all the data sources, we require a mechanism to load the data into a central repository. The main reason for that is the business tools required to constantly store data in the underlying storage. Therefore, frequent connections to the source systems can put our production systems at risk of being unresponsive or performing poorly. The central repository where we store the data from various data sources is called Staging. We usually store the data in the staging with no or minor changes compared to the data in the data sources. Therefore, the quality of the data stored in the staging is usually low and requires cleansing in the subsequent phases of the data journey. In many BI solutions, we use Staging as a temporary environment, so we delete the Staging data regularly after it is successfully transferred to the next stage, the data warehouse or data marts.

If we want to indicate the data quality with colours, it is fair to say the data quality in staging is Bronze.

Data Warehouse/Data Mart(s)

As mentioned before, the data in the staging is not in its best shape and format. Multiple data sources disparately generate the data. So, analysing the data and creating reports on top of the data in staging would be challenging, time-consuming and expensive. So we require to find out the links between the data sources, cleanse, reshape and transform the data and make it more optimised for data analysis and reporting activities. We store the current and historical data in a data warehouse. So it is pretty normal to have hundreds of millions or even billions of rows of data over a long period. Depending on the overall architecture, the data warehouse might contain encapsulated business-specific data in a data mart or a collection of data marts. In data warehousing, we use different modelling approaches such as Star Schema. As mentioned earlier, one of the primary purposes of having a data warehouse is to keep the history of the data. This is a massive benefit of having a data warehouse, but this strength comes with a cost. As the volume of the data in the data warehouse grows, it makes it more expensive to analyse the data. The data quality in the data warehouse or data marts is Silver.

Extract, Transfrom and Load (ETL)

In the previous sections, we mentioned that we integrate the data from the data sources in the staging area, then we cleanse, reshape and transform the data and load it into a data warehouse. To do so, we follow a process called Extract, Transform and Load or, in short, ETL. As you can imagine, the ETL processes are usually pretty complex and expensive, but they are an essential part of every BI solution.

Continue reading “Business Intelligence Components and How They Relate to Power BI”